Phuket’s Fauna and Flora
We love diving in Thailand, so we created the category Fauna and Flora. But we’re also concerned about the underwater world, its preservation starts with understanding.
In this section, you will discover which species you may encounter, their behavior and where to find them. We are constantly updating it to give you more details.
This way if you come diving in Thailand, you will know which marine animals you will see !
The oceanic fauna and flora is made of several zones.
The Pelagic zone (cf. Pelagic species) contains two zones: the Neritic zone and the Oceanic zone. The Neritic zone is delimited horizontally by the low-tide level and the end of the continental shelf. The Oceanic zone contains all the rest of the ocean.
The Benthic zone (cf. Benthic species) delimitates the Pelagic zone by depth: Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, Abyssal-pelagic, Hadalpelagic.
As divers, the part that interests us the most is the Neritic zone, or Epipelagic. It is the first part of the ocean from the surface to 200 meters in depth. It is where most of marine life is contained, due to the combination of small depth and important luminosity.
It is also the richest part in oxygen because the coral reefs are present. They are responsible for more than 50% of the worldwide O2 production.
Moreover, the pressure being weak, the temperature and salinity stable, the Epipelagic zone is the ideal spot for a scuba dive.
To understand more about Fauna and Flora in Thailand, here are the five main categories of subaquatic life:
- Pelagic species : E.g. Whale Sharks, Manta Rays…
- Benthopelagic species – E.g. Blacktip Sharks, Turtles…
- Benthic species – E.g. Stingrays, Stonefish
- Coral reef fish – Moray eels, Angelfish
- Coral reefs – Harp Coral, Staghorn Coral
Here is a list of the multiple marine habitats.
- The littoral : It is the zone delimited by the continent and a marine distance. This distance can vary from a couple hundreds of meters to multiple kilometers. Typically, the frontiers are the high and the low tide.
- Coral reefs : Hosting 25% of total marine life, coral reefs are ecological niches. Many species find shelters in between boulders or branches. Hard corals and soft corals are the principal categories.
- Continental Shelf : It is the part of the continent plunging underwater, thus being submerged.
- Oceanic lithosphere : It is the solidified layer of basalt in the oceans. It is younger than the continent one (less than 200 million against 3700 for the continental layer).
- Estuary : It is the zone delimited by the high and the low tide. the estuary is mostly inhabited by crabs, shells, weed or small invertebrates.
- Detroit : It corresponds where the river becomes the ocean.
- Oceanic zone : This zone begins where the depth drops to 200 meters, from the coasts. It represents 65% of the ocean, and is divided in 3 zones: Epipelagic (40º to -3º), mesopelagic (5º to 4º) and bathypelagic (0º to 6º)
- Pelagic zone : In greek “pelagos”, meaning “open sea”. It the the zone delimited by the open ocean and the seabed. It is divided in 5 zones by depth.
- Epipelagique : zone between the surface and 200m. In this zone, the photosynthesis can happen until 100m.
- Mesopelagic : zone between 200m and 1000m. There is no photosynthesis happening in this zone.
- Bathypelagic : zone between 1000m and 4000m. The name comes from greek, “bathys” which means “deep”. At this depth, few organisms survive. Only some come from above, like the cachalot hunting for giant calamaries.
- Abyssopelagique : zone between 4000 and the oceanic seabed. The name is deviated from the greek “abyssos” which means “without end”. No light is present, it is pitch black. Species that live there are mostly blind.
- Hadopelagic : It corresponds to the depth of the oceanic fault, going to the depth of 11000 m. We do not know a lot about this zone. It name comes from Hades, greek god that reign on the underground world.